1、 问题:Which one below is NOT a kind of high energy compound?
2、 问题:Enzymes are potent catalysts because they:
A:are consumed in the reactions they catalyze.
B:are very specific and can prevent the conversion of products back to substrates.
C:increase the equilibrium constants for the reactions they catalyze.
D:lower the activation energy for the reactions they catalyze.
答案: 【lower the activation energy for the reactions they catalyze.】
3、 问题:Which statement about allosteric control of enzymatic activity is FALSE?
A:Allosteric effectors give rise to sigmoidal V versus [S] kinetic plots.
B:An effector may either inhibit or activate an enzyme.
C:Binding of the effector changes the conformation of the enzyme molecule.
D:Heterotropic allosteric effectors compete with substrate for binding sites.
答案: 【Heterotropic allosteric effectors compete with substrate for binding sites.】
4、 问题:A small molecule that DECREASES the activity of an enzyme by binding to a site other than the catalytic site is termed a(n):
答案: 【allosteric inhibitor.】
5、 问题:Which amino acid is NOT one that may be targeted for phosphorylation to modulate the activity of an enzyme?
6、 问题:Which type of enzyme is responsible for attaching phosphate groups to specific amino acids?
A:a protein phosphatase
B:a protein kinase
C:a protein glycosylase
答案: 【a protein kinase】
1、 问题:Which reaction in glycolysis requires ATP as a substrate?
2、 问题:Which reaction in glycolysis produces ATP as a product?
答案: 【pyruvate kinase】
3、 问题:During strenuous exercise, the NADH formed in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in skeletal muscle must be reoxidized to NAD+ if glycolysis is to continue. The most important reaction involved in the reoxidation of NADH is:
A:dihydroxyacetone phosphate → glycerol 3-phosphate.
B:pyruvate → lactate.
C: isocitrate → α-ketoglutarate.
D:oxaloacetate → malate.
答案: 【pyruvate → lactate.】
4、 问题:The anaerobic conversion of 1 mol of glucose to 2 mol of lactate by fermentation is accompanied by a net gain of:
A: 1 mol of ATP.
B:1 mol of NADH.
C: 2 mol of ATP.
D:2 mol of NADH.
答案: 【 2 mol of ATP.】
5、 问题:In comparison with the resting state, actively contracting human muscle tissue has a:
A: higher concentration of ATP.
B:higher rate of lactate formation.
C:lower consumption of glucose.
D:lower rate of consumption of oxygen
答案: 【higher rate of lactate formation.】
6、 问题:Which compound CANNOT serve as the starting material for the synthesis of glucose via gluconeogenesis?
7、 问题:An enzyme used in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is:
答案: 【3-phosphoglycerate kinase.】
8、 问题:Which statement about gluconeogenesis is FALSE?
A:For starting materials, it can use carbon skeletons derived from certain amino acids.
B:It consists entirely of the reactions of glycolysis, operating in the reverse direction.
C:It employs the enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase.
D:It is one of the ways that mammals maintain normal blood glucose levels
答案: 【It consists entirely of the reactions of glycolysis, operating in the reverse direction.】
9、 问题: In humans, gluconeogenesis:
A:can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose.
B:helps to reduce blood glucose after a carbohydrate-rich meal.
C:is essential in the conversion of fatty acids to glucose.
D:requires the enzyme hexokinase.
答案: 【can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose.】
10、 问题:Which statement about the pentose phosphate pathway is CORRECT?
A:It generates 36 mol of ATP per mole of glucose consumed.
B:It is a reductive pathway; it consumes NADH.
C: It is present in plants, but not in animals.
D: It provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides.
答案: 【 It provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides.】
11、 问题:The metabolic function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to:
A:act as a source of ADP biosynthesis.
B:generate NADPH and pentoses for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids.
C:participate in oxidation-reduction reactions during the formation of H2O.
D:provide intermediates for the citric acid cycle.
答案: 【generate NADPH and pentoses for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids.】
12、 问题:Which compound(s) is/are a high-energy intermediate(s) in glycolysis?
C:1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenol pyruvate
D:fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and phosphoenol pyruvate
答案: 【1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenol pyruvate】
13、 问题:Malonate is a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. If malonate is added to a mitochondrial preparation that is oxidizing pyruvate as a substrate, which compound would you expect to decrease in concentration?
14、 问题:Which compound is NOT an intermediate of the citric acid cycle?
15、 问题: In mammals, what process does NOT occur during the citric acid cycle?
A:formation of α-ketoglutarate
B:generation of NADH and FADH2
C:metabolism of acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide
D:net synthesis of oxaloacetate from acetyl-CoA
答案: 【net synthesis of oxaloacetate from acetyl-CoA】
16、 问题:Conversion of 1 mol of acetyl-CoA to 2 mol of CO2 and CoA via the citric acid cycle results in the net production of:
A:1 mol of citrate.
B:1 mol of FADH2.
C:1 mol of NADH.
D:1 mol of oxaloacetate.
答案: 【1 mol of FADH2.】
17、 问题:Which factor is NOT associated with the oxidation of substrates by the citric acid cycle?
18、 问题:Which enzymatic activity would be decreased by thiamine deficiency?
A:α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
B: isocitrate dehydrogenase
答案: 【α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex】
19、 问题:The reaction of the citric acid cycle that produces an ATP equivalent (in the form of GTP) by substrate level phosphorylation is the conversion of:
A:succinyl-CoA to succinate.
B:citrate to isocitrate.
C:fumarate to malate.
D:succinate to fumarate.
答案: 【succinyl-CoA to succinate.】
20、 问题:Which cofactor is required for the conversion of succinate to fumarate in the citric acid cycle?
21、 问题:Which process is NOT a metabolic fate for pyruvate in liver tissue?
A:reduction to lactate
B:oxidative decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA
C: phosphorylation to phosphoenolpyruvate
D:carboxylation to oxaloacetate
答案: 【 phosphorylation to phosphoenolpyruvate】
22、 问题:Covalent modification is one way the activity of specific enzymes can be regulated. Which enzyme is NOT regulated in this way?
D:All of these enzymes are regulated by covalent modification.
答案: 【All of these enzymes are regulated by covalent modification.】
23、 问题:Which statement about mammalian glycogen synthase is NOT correct?
A:It is especially predominant in liver and muscle.
B:The donor molecule is a sugar nucleotide.
C:The phosphorylated form of this enzyme is active.
D:This enzyme adds the initial glucose unit to a tyrosine residue in glycogenin.
答案: 【The phosphorylated form of this enzyme is active.】
24、 问题:Which statement is TRUE of glycogen synthase?
A:Activation of the enzyme involves a phosphorylation.
B:It catalyzes addition of glucose residues to the nonreducing end of a glycogen chain by formation of (α1 -4) bonds.
C:It uses glucose-6-phosphate as donor of glucose units
D:The enzyme has measurable activity only in liver.
答案: 【It catalyzes addition of glucose residues to the nonreducing end of a glycogen chain by formation of (α1 -4) bonds.】
25、 问题:Which statement is TRUE of muscle glycogen phosphorylase?
A:It catalyzes phosphorolysis of the (α1-6) bonds at the branch points of glycogen.
B:It degrades glycogen to form glucose 6-phosphate.
C:It exists in an active (a) form and an inactive (b) form that is allosterically regulated by AMP.
D:It removes glucose residues from the reducing ends of the glycogen chains.
答案: 【It exists in an active (a) form and an inactive (b) form that is allosterically regulated by AMP.】
26、 问题:Which statement is TRUE of glycogen synthesis and breakdown?
A:Phosphorylation activates the enzyme responsible for breakdown, and inactivates the synthetic enzyme.
B:Synthesis is catalyzed by the same enzyme that catalyzes breakdown.
C:The immediate product of glycogen breakdown is free glucose.
D:Under normal circumstances, glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown occur simultaneously and at high rates.
答案: 【Phosphorylation activates the enzyme responsible for breakdown, and inactivates the synthetic enzyme.】
27、 问题:Glycogen phosphorylase a can be inhibited at an allosteric site by:
28、 问题:Starting from glucose, what is the net number of NTP molecules used in the synthesis of glycogen?
29、 问题:What will be the net yield of ATP (per glucose unit) starting from glycogen and ending at pyruvate?
答案: 【3 ATP】
30、 问题:Which method of directly regulates PFK-I?
A:allosteric activation by AMP
B:feedback inhibition by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
C:allosteric activation by citrate
D:feed forward activation by phosphoenolpyruvate
答案: 【allosteric activation by AMP】
1、 问题:Which statement regarding oxidative phosphorylation is TRUE?
A:The rate of electron transport is independent of the magnitude of the proton electrochemical gradient.
B:ATP synthase utilizes oxidized cofactors.
C:Proton transfer through the Fo subunit of ATP synthase is required in order for ATP synthesis to occur.
D:The addition of an uncoupler decreases the rate of re-oxidation of NADH and FADH2, therefore decreasing the rate of the citric acid cycle.
答案: 【Proton transfer through the Fo subunit of ATP synthase is required in order for ATP synthesis to occur.】
2、 问题:The electron-transport chain and ATP synthase are effectively coupled. Which statement BEST describes how this occurs?
A:The electron-transport chain reoxidizes reduced cofactors.
B:The electron-transport chain generates an electrochemical gradient that provides energy for the production of ATP.
C:ATP synthase utilizes oxidized cofactors.
D:Through a series of conformational changes, ATP synthase generates ATP.
答案: 【The electron-transport chain generates an electrochemical gradient that provides energy for the production of ATP.】
3、 问题:Which statement is NOT true of electron transport?
A:The mobile electron carrier coenzyme A is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
B:Electrons flow from redox centers with a lower reduction potential to redox centers with a higher reduction potential.
C:The electron transport chain oxidizes reduced cofactors.
D:Cytochrome C has a higher reduction potential than FADH2.
答案: 【The mobile electron carrier coenzyme A is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.】
4、 问题:During oxidative phosphorylation, the proton motive force (electrochemical gradient) that is generated by electron transport is used to:
A:create a pore in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
B:reduce O2 to H2O.
C:drive transport processes essential to oxidative phosphorylation.
D:reduce NAD+ to NADH.
答案: 【drive transport processes essential to oxidative phosphorylation.】
5、 问题:Complex III contains which cofactor as a prosthetic group?
答案: 【iron-sulfur clusters】
6、 问题:Which statement is FALSE regarding 2,4-dinitrophenol?
A:It decreases ATP synthesis will increasing oxygen consumption.
B:It requires a specific transporter to enter mitochondria.
C:It is a proton carrier.
D:It is soluble in the lipid core of membranes.
答案: 【It requir