Plant Cells TEST 1

1、 问题:Which of the following tissue system is NOT one of the three major tissue systems in plants?
选项:
A:Meristem tissue
B:Ground tissue
C:Dermal tissue
D:Vascular tissue
答案: 【Meristem tissue

2、 问题:Which of the following types of ground tissue has the THICKEST cell walls?
选项:
A:Parenchyma
B:Collenchyma
C:Sclerenchyma
D:None
答案: 【Sclerenchyma

3、 问题:Lateral roots arise from ( )?
选项:
A:Pericycle
B:Vascular cambium
C:Endodermis
D:Epidermis
答案: 【Pericycle

4、 问题: Which of the following statements about plant structure is CORRECT?
选项:
A:Root hair is made of dermal tissues.
B:Secondary cell walls are deposited outside of primary cell walls.
C:Pericycle in roots is equivalent to vascular cambium in stems.
D:None.
答案: 【Root hair is made of dermal tissues.

5、 问题:Place the following steps of DNA packaging in proper order:I. Chromatin fiber II. Condensed chromatin III. DNA double helix IV. Looped domains V. Nucleosomes
选项:
A:III, V, I, IV, II.
B:III, V, IV, I, II.
C:III, I, V, IV, II.
D:I, III, V, IV, II
答案: 【III, V, I, IV, II.

6、 问题:Which of the following statements about plant structure is correct?
选项:
A:Lateral roots arise from epidermis.
B:Secondary cell walls are deposited outside of primary cell walls.
C:The pith in stems is made of vascular tissues.
D:Root hair is made of dermal tissues.
答案: 【Root hair is made of dermal tissues.

7、 问题:Which of the following statements about plant classification is WRONG?
选项:
A:Chloroplasts in plants and green algae contain chlorophyll a and b and β-carotene.
B:Plants share the evolutionarily derived traits for surviving on land that are absent in algae.
C:Mosses, hornworts, liverworts, and ferns are nonvascular plants.
D:Magnolia and its relatives, monocots, and eudicots are flowering plants (i.e., angiosperms).
答案: 【Mosses, hornworts, liverworts, and ferns are nonvascular plants.

8、 问题:Which of the following statements about plastids is CORRECT?
选项:
A:The chloroplast is one type of chromoplasts because it contains a high concentration of chlorophyll pigment.
B:Chloroplast division is independent of nuclear division; therefore, the chloroplast does not require nuclear-encoded proteins to divide.
C:Both chloroplasts and amyloplasts can accumulate starch.
D:None.
答案: 【Both chloroplasts and amyloplasts can accumulate starch.

9、 问题:Which of the following processes does NOT take place in the nucleus?
选项:
A:Transcription
B:Ribosome synthesis
C:Translation
D:DNA replication
答案: 【Translation

10、 问题:Which of the following statements about plant organelles is CORRECT?
选项:
A:The recycling of membrane vesicles – from the plasma membrane to the Golgi, from the trans to the cis face of the Golgi, or from the Golgi to the ER – is called anterograde movement through the endomembrane system.
B:Glyoxysomes are specialized peroxisomes found in oil-rich storage tissues of seeds in which fatty acids are oxidized.
C:Microfilaments have a bigger diameter than microtubules.
D:The minus ends of microtubules or microfilaments tend to be more active in growth than the plus ends.
答案: 【Glyoxysomes are specialized peroxisomes found in oil-rich storage tissues of seeds in which fatty acids are oxidized.

Genome Organization and Gene Expression TEST 2

1、 问题:Which of the following statements about nuclear genome organization is CORRECT?
选项:
A:Nucleolar organizer regions are portions of chromosomes where ribosomal RNA genes are clustered and transcribed.
B:Centromeres are sequences located at the ends of each chromosome.
C:Telomeres are where sister chromatids adhere to each other and where spindle fibers attach during cell division.
D:Chromosome organization is random in the interphase nucleus.
答案: 【Nucleolar organizer regions are portions of chromosomes where ribosomal RNA genes are clustered and transcribed.

2、 问题:Which of the following statements about transposons is CORRECT?
选项:
A:Transposons are mobile sequences within the genome.
B:DNA transposons make an RNA copy of themselves, which is then reversetranscribed into DNA before it is inserted in the genome.
C:Retrotransposons move from one position to another using a cut-and-paste mechanism catalyzed by transposase.
D:None.
答案: 【Transposons are mobile sequences within the genome.

3、 问题:Which of the following statements about polyploids is CORRECT?
选项:
A:If polyploidy is restricted to somatic tissues, the terminology used to describe this state is endopolyploidy.
B:Allopolyploids contain multiple complete genomes of a single species.
C:Autopolyploids contain multiple complete genomes derived from two or more separate species.
D:Autopolyploids are always larger than their diploid progenitors.
答案: 【If polyploidy is restricted to somatic tissues, the terminology used to describe this state is endopolyploidy.

4、 问题:Which of the following statements about plant cytoplasmic genomes is WRONG?
选项:
A:The origin of mitochondria is considered as an oxygen-using bacterium engulfed by another prokaryotic organism.
B:The origin of chloroplasts is considered as a photosynthetic cyanobacterium engulfed by a eukaryotic cell.
C:Mitochondrial inheritance is usually paternal in the majority of the plants.
D:Both mitochondria and plastids generally show uni-parent inheritance.
答案: 【Mitochondrial inheritance is usually paternal in the majority of the plants.

5、 问题:Which of the following statements about features of a typical eukaryotic core promoter is CORRECT?
选项:
A:Enhancers must be located upstream from the promoter.
B:Repressors are trans-acting transcription factors that repress gene expression.
C:Activators are cis-acting transcription factors that activate gene expression.
D:None.
答案: 【Repressors are trans-acting transcription factors that repress gene expression.

6、 问题:Which of the following is NOT considered as a source of double-stranded RNAs in plant cells?
选项:
A:The presence of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are involved in normal developmental processes.
B:The production of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which silence certain genes.
C:The introduction of foreign RNAs, either by viral infection or via transformation by a

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