Unit 1 Fresh start Reading Comprehension

1、 问题:For thousands of years, people have known that the best way to understand a concept is to explain it to someone else. “While we teach, we learn,” said Roman philosopher Seneca. Now scientists are bringing this ancient wisdom up-to-date. They’re documenting why teaching is such a fruitful way to learn, and designing innovative ways for young people to engage in instruction.Researchers have found that students who sign up to tutor others work harder to understand the material, recall it more accurately and apply it more effectively. Student teachers score higher on tests than pupils who’re learning only for their own sake. But how can children, still learning themselves, teach others? One answer: They can tutor younger kids. Some studies have found that first-born children are more intelligent than their later-born siblings (兄弟姐妹). This suggests their higher IQs result from the time they spend teaching their siblings. Now educators are experimenting with ways to apply this model to academic subjects. They engage college undergraduates to teach computer science to high school students, who in turn instruct middle school students on the topic.But the most cutting-edge tool under development is the “teachable agent”—a computerized character who learns, tries, makes mistakes and asks questions just like a real-world pupil. Computer scientists have created an animated (动画的) figure called Betty’s Brain, who has been “taught” about environmental science by hundreds of middle school students. Student teachers are motivated to help Betty master certain materials. While preparing to teach, they organize their knowledge and improve their own understanding. And as they explain the information to it, they identify problems in their own thinking.Feedback from the teachable agents further enhances the tutors’ learning. The agents’ questions compel student tutors to think and explain the materials in different ways, and watching the agent solve problems allows them to see their knowledge put into action.Above all, it’s the emotions one experiences in teaching that facilitate learning. Student tutors feel upset when their teachable agents fail, but happy when these virtual pupils succeed as they derive pride and satisfaction from someone else’s accomplishment.1. What are researchers rediscovering through their studies?A.Seneca’s thinking is still applicable today.B.Better learners will become better teachers.C.Human intelligence tends to grow with age.D.Philosophical thinking improves instruction.
选项:
A:Seneca’s thinking is still applicable today.
B:Better learners will become better teachers.
C:Human intelligence tends to grow with age.
D:Philosophical thinking improves instruction.
答案: 【Seneca’s thinking is still applicable today.

2、 问题:2. What do we learn about Betty’s Brain?
选项:
A:It is a teaching tool under development.
B:It is a character in a popular animation.
C:It is a cutting-edge app in digital games.
D:It is a tutor for computer science students.
答案: 【It is a teaching tool under development.

3、 问题:3. How does teaching others benefit student tutors?
选项:
A:It helps them learn their academic subjects better.
B:It makes them aware of what they are strong at.
C:It motivates them to try novel ways of teaching.
D:It enables them to better understand their teachers.
答案: 【It helps them learn their academic subjects better.

4、 问题:4. What do students do to teach their teachable agents?
选项:
A:They use various ways to explain the materials.
B:They motivate them to think independently.
C:They ask them to design their own questions.
D:They encourage them to give prompt feedback.
答案: 【They use various ways to explain the materials.

5、 问题:5. What is the key factor that eases student tutors’ learning?
选项:
A:Their emotional involvement.
B:Their sense of responsibility.
C:The learning strategy acquired.
D:The teaching experience gained.
答案: 【Their emotional involvement.

Unit 1 Fresh start Translation

1、 问题:请将下面这段话翻译成英文:重阳节重阳节,由于它是在中国农历九月初九这一天,所以又被称为重九节,至今有约两千年的历史。在中国古代,重阳节是一个重要的节日,这一天要举行各种庆祝活动,如:登高、赏菊(chrysanthemum )、插茱萸(cornel)、吃重阳糕等。登髙是重阳节的主要习俗。古人认为,在这一天登高可以避祸免灾。近年来,这个古老的节日被赋予新的含义,逐渐成为开展各种敬老活动、一年一度的“老年节”。
答案: 【Chongyang Festival

Chongyang Festival,falls on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, because of which,it is also named as the Double-ninth Festival, which has a history of some 2,000 years. As an important festival in ancient China, Chongyang Festival was celebrated by holding various activities, such as climbing mountains, appreciating chrysanthemums, wearing cornel and eating Chongyang cakes. Climbing mountains is a major custom in Chongyang Festival. Ancient people thought climbing mountains on this day could help them avoid misfortune and prevent disasters. In recent years, a new meaning has been given to the old festival,and it gradually becomes an annual Seniors’ Day, on which various activities are held in honor of senior people.】
分析:【参考翻译:

Chongyang Festival

Chongyang Festival,falls on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, because of which,it is also named as the Double-ninth Festival, which has a history of some 2,000 years. As an important festival in ancient China, Chongyang Festival was celebrated by holding various activities, such as climbing mountains, appreciating chrysanthemums, wearing cornel and eating Chongyang cakes. Climbing mountains is a major custom in Chongyang Festival. Ancient people thought climbing mountains on this day could help them avoid misfortune and prevent disasters. In recent years, a new meaning has been given to the old festival,and it gradually becomes an annual Seniors’ Day, on which various activities are held in honor of senior people.】

Unit 1 Fresh start Reading Comprehension1

1、 问题:California has been facing a drought for many years now, with certain areas even having to pump freshwater hundreds of miles to their distribution system. The problem is growing as the population of the state continues to expand. New research has found deep water reserves under the state which could help solve their drought crisis. Previous drilling of wells could only reach depths of 1,000 feet, but due to new pumping practices, water deeper than this can now be extracted (抽取). The team at Stanford investigated the aquifers(地下蓄水层)below this depth and found that reserves may be triple what was previously thought.It is profitable to drill to depths more than 1,000 feet for oil and gas extraction, but only recently in California has it become profitable to pump water from this depth. The aquifers range from 1,000 to3,000 feet below the ground, which means that pumping will be expensive and there are other concerns. The biggest concern of pumping out water from this deep is the gradual setting down of the land surface. As the water is pumped out, the vacant space left is compacted by the weight of the earth above.Even though pumping from these depths is expensive, it is still cheaper than desalinating(脱盐)the ocean water in the largely coastal state. Some desalination plants exist where feasible, but they are costly to run and can need constant repairs. Wells are much more reliable sources of freshwater, and California is hoping that these deep wells may be the answer to their severe water shortage.One problem with these sources is that the deep water also has a higher level of salt than shallower aquifers. This means that some wells may even need to undergo desalination after extraction, thus increasing the cost. Research from the exhaustive study of groundwater from over 950 drilling logs has just been published. New estimates of the water reserves now go up to 2,700 billion cubic meters of freshwater.1 How could California’s drought crisis be solved according to some researchers?
选项:
A:By building more reserves of groundwater.
B: By drawing water from the depths of the earth.
C:By developing more advanced drilling devices.
D:By upgrading its water distribution system.
答案: 【 By drawing water from the depths of the earth.

2、 问题:What can be inferred about extracting water from deep aquifers?
选项:
A:It was deemed vital to solving the water problem.
B: It was not considered worth the expense.
C: It may not provide quality freshwater.
D:It is bound to gain support from the local people.
答案: 【 It was not considered worth the expense.

3、 问题:What is mentioned as a consequence of extracting water from deep underground?
选项:
A:The sinking of land surface.
B:The harm to the ecosystem.
C:The damage to aquifers.
D:The change of the climate.
答案: 【The sinking of land surface.

4、 问题:What does the author say about deep wells?
选项:
A:They run without any need for repairs.
B:They are entirely free from pollutants.
C:They are the ultimate solution to droughts.
D:They provide a steady supply of freshwater.
答案: 【They provide a steady supply of freshwater.

5、 问题:What may happen when deep aquifers are used as water sources?
选项:
A:People’s health may improve with cleaner water.
B:People’s water bills may be lowered considerably.
C:The cost may go up due to desalination.
D:They may be exhausted sooner or later.
答案: 【The cost may go up due to desalination.

Unit 2 Loving parents, loving children Reading Comprehension

1、 问题:A new batch of young women—members of the so-called Millennial (千禧的) generation—has beenentering the workforce for the past decade. At the starting line of their careers, they are bettereducated than their mothers and grandmothers had been—or than their young malecounterparts are now. But when they look ahead, they see roadblocks to their success. Theybelieve that women are paid less than men for doing the same job. They think it’s easier formen to get top executive jobs than it is for them. And they assume that if and when theyhave children, it will be even harder for them to advance in their careers.While the public sees greater workplace equality between men and women now than it did 20-30 years ago, most believe more change is needed. Among Millennial women, 75% say thiscountry needs to continue making changes to achieve gender equality in the workplace, compared with 57% of Millennial men. Even so, relatively few young women (15%) say theyhave been discriminated against at work because of their gender.As Millennial women come of age they share many of the same views and values about work astheir male counterparts. They want jobs that provide security and flexibility, and they placerelatively little importance on high pay. At the same time, however, young working women areless likely than men to aim at top management jobs: 34% say they’re not interested inbecoming a boss or top manager; only 24% of young men say the same. The gender gap onthis question is even wider among working adults in their 30s and 40s, when many women facethe trade-offs that go with work and motherhood.These findings are based on a new Pew Research Center survey of 2,002 adults, including 810 Millennials (ages 18-32), conducted Oct. 7-27, 2013. The survey finds that, in spite of thedramatic gains women have made in educational attainment and labor force participation inrecent decades, young women view this as a man’s world—just as middle-aged and olderwomen do.1.What do we learn from the first paragraph about Millennial women starting their careers?
选项:
A:They are better educated than their male counterparts.
B:They are generally quite optimistic about their future.
C:They expect to succeed just like Millennial men.
D:They can get ahead only by striving harder.
答案: 【They are better educated than their male counterparts.

2、 问题:How do most Millennial women feel about their treatment in the workplace?
选项:
A:They are the target of discrimination.
B:They find it satisfactory on the whole.
C:They think it needs further improving.
D:They find their complaints ignored.
答案: 【They think it needs further improving.

3、 问题:What do Millennial women value most when coming of age?
选项:
A:A sense of accomplishment.
B:Job stability and flexibility.
C:Rewards and promotions.
D:Joy derived from work.
答案: 【Job stability and flexibility.

4、 问题:What are women in their 30s and 40s concerned about?
选项:
A:The welfare of their children.
B:The narrowing of the gender gap.
C:The fulfillment of their dreams in life.
D:The balance between work and family.
答案: 【The balance between work and family.

5、 问题:What conclusion can be drawn about Millennial women from the 2013 survey?
选项:
A:They still view this world as one dominated by males.
B:They account for half the workforce in the job market.
C:They see the world differently from older generations.
D:They do better in work than their male counterparts.
答案: 【They still view this world as one dominated by males.

Unit 3 Digital campus reading comprehension

1、 问题:Passage OneQuestions 46 to 50 are based on the followingpassage.Living in an urban area with green spaces has along-lasting positive impact on people’s mentalwell-being, a study has suggested. UK researchersfound moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short-term boost. Co-author Mathew White, from the University ofExeter, UK, explained that the study showed

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