Lesson 2 Skimming

1、 问题:Go through the passage “Body Language” within 1 minute, and answer the question that follows. (Tips: Read the first sentence of each paragraph.)Body Language What does scientific literature tell us about the idea that body language reflects our real feelings? One experiment carried out about 10 years ago by Ross Buck from Carnegie-Mellon University in Pennsylvania suggests that spontaneous facial expression is not a very good index of real emotional state. Buck and his colleagues tested the accuracy with which people could identify the emotions felt by another person. They presented one set of subjects with color slides involving a variety of emotionally-loaded visual stimuli – such as “scenic” slides (landscapes, etc), “maternal” slides (mothers and young children), disgusting slides (severe facial injuries and burns) and unusual slides (art objects). Unknown to these subjects, they were being televised and viewed by another matched set of subjects, who were asked to decide, on the basis of the televised facial expressions, which of the four sets of slides had just been viewed. This experiment involved both male and female pairs, but no pairs comprising both men and women; that is men observed only men, and women observed women. Buck found that the female pairs correctly identified almost 40 per cent of the slides used – this was above the level which would be predicted by chance alone. (Chance level is 25 per cent here, as there were four classes of slide). But male pairs correctly identified only 28 per cent of slides – not significantly above chance level. In other words, this study suggests that facial expression is not a very good index of “real” feeling – and in the case of men watching and interpreting other men, is almost useless.Paul Ekman from the University of California has conducted a long series of experiments on nonverbal leakage (or how nonverbal behavior may reveal real inner states) which has yielded some more positive and counter-intuitive results. Ekman has suggested that nonverbal behavior may indeed provide a clue to real feelings and has explored in some detail people actively involved in deception, where their verbal language is not a true indication of how they really feel. Ekman here agrees with Sigmund Freud, who was also convinced of the importance of nonverbal behavior in spotting deception when he wrote: “He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his finger-tips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore.”Ekman predicted that the feet and legs would probably hold the best clue to deception because although the face sends out very quick instantaneous messages, people attend to and receive most feedback from the face and therefore try to control it most. In the case of the feet and legs the “transmission time” is much longer but we have little feedback from this part of the body. In other words, we are often unaware of what we are doing with our feet and legs. Ekman suggested that the face is equipped to lie the most (because we are often aware of our facial expression) and to “leak” the most (because it sends out many fast momentary messages) and is therefore going to be a very confusing source of information during deception. The legs and feet would be the primary source of nonverbal leakage and hold the main clue to deception. The form the leakage in the legs and feet would take would include “aggressive foot kicks, flirtatious leg displays, abortive restless flight movements”. Clues to deception could be seen in “tense leg positions, frequent shifts of leg posture, and in restless or repetitive leg and foot movements.”Ekman conducted a series of experiments to test his speculations, some involving psychiatric patients who were engaging in deception, usually to obtain release from hospital. He made films of interviews involving the patients and showed these, without sound, to one of two groups of observers. One group viewed only the face and head, the other group, the body from the neck down. Each observer was given a list of 300 adjectives describing attitudes, emotional state, and so on, and had to say which adjectives best described the patients. The results indicated quite dramatically that individuals who utilized the face tended to be misled by the patients, whereas those who concentrated on the lower body were much more likely to detect the real state of the patients and not be misled by the attempted deception.These studies thus suggest that some body language may indeed reflect our real feelings, even when we are trying to disguise them. Most people can, however, manage to control facial expression quite well and the face often seems to provide little information about real feeling. Paul Ekman has more recently demonstrated that people can be trained to interpret facial expression more accurately but this, not surprisingly, is a slow laborious process. Ekman’s research, suggests that the feet and legs betray a great deal about real feelings and attitudes but the research is nowhere near identifying the meanings of particular foot movements. Ray Birdwhistell of the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute has gone some way towards identifying some of the basic nonverbal elements of the legs and feet, and as a first approximation has identified 58 separate elements. But the meanings of these particular elements are far from clear and neither are the rules for combining the elements into larger meaningful units. Perhaps in years to come we will have a “language” of the feet provided that we can successfully surmount the problems described earlier in identifying the basic forms of movement following Birdwhistell’s pioneering efforts, of how they may combine into larger units, and in teaching people how they might make sense of apparently contradictory movements. In the meantime, if you go to a party and find someone peering intently at your feet – beware. *********Question:What does this passage want to tell the readers?
A:Researchers have developed a thorough knowledge about body language.
B:Spontaneous facial expression is not a very good index of real emotional state.
C:Some body language may indeed reflect people’s real feelings.
D:The study of body language is a newly emerged subject.
答案: 【Some body language may indeed reflect people’s real feelings.

Lesson 2 Scanning

1、 问题:Read the passage “The Discovery of X-rays” quickly and choose the paragraph(s) which contain(s) the answer(s). You may choose more than one answer for question 3. The Discovery of X-rays Par. 1 Except for a brief description of the Compton effect, and a few other remarks, we have postponed the discussion of X-rays until the present chapter because it is particularly convenient to treat X-ray spectra after treating optical spectra. Although this ordering may have given the reader a distorted impression of the historical importance of X-rays, this impression will be corrected shortly as we describe the crucial role played by X-rays in the development of modern physics.Par. 2 X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Roentgen while studying the phenomena of gaseous discharge. Using a cathode ray tube with a high voltage of several tens of kilovolts, he noticed that salts of barium would fluoresce when brought near the tube, although nothing visible was emitted by the tube. This effect persisted when the tube was wrapped with a layer of black cardboard. Roentgen soon established that the agency responsible for the fluorescence originated at the point at which the stream of energetic electrons struck the glass wall of the tube. Because of its unknown nature, he gave this agency the name X-rays. He found that X-rays could manifest themselves by darkening wrapped photographic plates, discharging charged electroscopes, as well as by causing fluorescence in a number of different substances. He also found that X-rays can penetrate considerable thicknesses of materials of low atomic number, whereas substances of high atomic number are relatively opaque. Roentgen took the first steps in identifying the nature of X-rays by using a system of slits to show that (1) they travel in straight lines, and that (2) they are uncharged, because they are not deflected by electric or magnetic fields.Par. 3 The discovery of X-rays aroused the interest of all physicists, and many joined in the investigation of their properties. In 1899 Haga and Wind performed a single slit diffraction experiment with X-rays which showed that (3) X-rays are a wave motion phenomenon, and, from the size of the diffraction pattern, their wavelength could be estimated to be 10-8 cm. In 1906 Barkla proved that (4) the waves are transverse by showing that they can be polarized by scattering from many materials.Par. 4 There is, of course, no longer anything unknown about the nature of X-rays. They are electromagnetic radiation of exactly the same nature as visible light, except that their wavelength is several orders of magnitude shorter. This conclusion follows from comparing properties 1 through 4 with the similar properties of visible light, but it was actually postulated by Thomson several years before all these properties were known. Thomson argued that X-rays are electromagnetic radiation because such radiation would be expected to be emitted from the point at which the electrons strike the wall of a cathode ray tube. At this point, the electrons suffer very violent accelerations in coming to a stop and, according to classical electromagnetic theory, all accelerated charged particles emit electromagnetic radiations. We shall see later that this explanation of the production of X-rays is at least partially correct.Par. 5 In common with other electromagnetic radiations, X-rays exhibit particle-like aspects as well as wave-like aspects. The reader will recall that the Compton effect, which is one of the most convincing demonstrations of the existence of quanta, was originally observed with electromagnetic radiation in the X-ray region of wavelengths.When were X-rays discovered?
A:Par. 1
B:Par. 2
C:Par. 3
D:Par. 4
E:Par. 5
答案: 【Par. 2

2、 问题:Who discovered X-rays?
A:Par. 1
B:Par. 2
C:Par. 3
D:Par. 4
E:Par. 5
答案: 【Par. 2

3、 问题:What are the four characteristics of X-rays?
A:Par. 1
B:Par. 2
C:Par. 3
D:Par. 4
E:Par. 5
答案: 【Par. 2;
Par. 3

Lesson 3 Distinguishing Main Ideas and Details

1、 问题:Task 1: Match each topic sentence with a supporting detail. Topic SentenceSupporting Detail1. Very few people in a new job could carry out their duties perfectly from the start.2. It is worth doing a course, if that skill is in great demand at present.3. Latest figures show record unemployment for 16-year-old school leavers.4. This particular recruitment agency has a remarkable record of filling job vacancies.5. ___ There are lists of standard interview questions on the internet.A. This has been put down to the current economic climate, which shows no sign of improving.B. The main reason for this is that they make sure their recommended candidates are suitable.C. Employers understand that there is a learning curve in every position.D. An obvious example is computer literacy, which is a must in every office nowadays.E. These include classics like ‘What’s your greatest weakness?’ and candidates should have an answer prepared. Write down the 5 corresponding letters of the supporting details for the 5 topic sentences. (Write your answer like this: ABCDE)
答案: 【(以下答案任选其一都对)cdabe;

2、 问题:Task 2: Match the paragraphs with the topic sentences. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. ParagraphTopic Sentence1. No-one is expecting an interviewee to grin manically throughout the interview, but there’s nothing worse than a blank or worried expression. Here’s an old trick: looking up at the ceiling and raising your eyebrows just before entering the interview room will relax your face.2. Interviewers spend all day listening to answers to the same set of questions, and so they would appreciate someone who is concise. Also, digressing into an anecdote about your Aunt Sandy doesn’t say much for your ability to focus on one task. If you have a relevant story to tell, practise it until you can deliver it in as few words as possible.3. ___ Scratching the nose or breaking eye contact, for example, are both sure signs that the interviewee is not being entirely honest. Someone who does not sit straight might be lazy, while someone who sits too straight is probably not creative. These are subjective and perhaps hasty judgements, but interviewers are human, like everyone else. A. Your face should be open and friendly, inviting conversation from the interviewer.B. Small details, such as posture, or the way you hold your head, have a greater impact than you can imagine.C. One interviewer we surveyed said she pays a lot of attention to a candidate’s body language.D. Candidates should keep their answers to the point, without being monosyllabic. Write down the 3 corresponding letters of the topic sentences for the 3 paragraphs.
答案: 【(以下答案任选其一都对)adb;

Lesson 3 Dealing with Unfamiliar Words

1、 问题:Task: Read the article about a kind of fitness training called HIIT. Then choose the best explanations for some of the words and expressions. HIIT: Is the fitness scene’s biggest fad doing more harm than good?1. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has been the darling of the fitness scene for a few years now. Fundamentally, it involves repetitions of short bursts of intense, ‘maximal effort’ exercise; usually for anywhere between 20 to 40 seconds.2. The theory behind HIIT is very appealing. By working out at your top level of exertion, you burn more calories in a short space of time than other workouts. What’s more, studies show that your metabolism stays in a heightened state for up to 24 hours after you’ve finished. And in practice, HIIT can have impressive results. It’s an effective tool for increasing cardiovascular fitness, sculpting your physique and increasing metabolic rate. Hence why HIIT classes are popping up all over the place. People have become accustomed to turning up to a class with loud music and dark lighting, just like a night club – and leaving in the same state: barely able to walk.3. However … I have a big bone to pick with HIIT, which is that there’s often no focus on form or technique in these classes, even though it’s now prescribed as the go-to form of exercise for everyone. Instead, the measure of a good HIIT sessions seems to be how ‘destroyed’ you feel after a class. It’s inevitable that problems arise from this ‘all pain for gain’ approach.4. One issue is simply that people are doing workouts that they’re not conditioned for. There is no emphasis on flexibility, mobility or activation in many HIIT classes; yet all are incredibly important in keeping the body fit and healthy as you age.5. What’s more, I regularly see people “smashing” multiple HIIT classes a day, 5-6 days per week. HIIT should not be done more than three times per week (at most), because it is so strenuous. It puts an incredible strain on your nervous system, joints and muscles; especially if you are overweight and unfit.6. The HIIT approach to exercise has gone OTT. It’s entering unsustainable territory.7. HIIT’s rise in popularity is symptomatic of what is wrong with the fitness industry as a whole: a brazen disregard of the fundamentals, and a detrimental “one size fits all” mentality. Having trained 100s of clients in my five years as a personal trainer, the biggest issues most people have are a lack of flexibility, mobility and core strength, on top of muscle activation issues. All of the above can lead to chronic injuries and are further exacerbated by HIIT.8. My belief is that everyone should try to train like athletes do. I don’t mean the same training frequency and intensity as athletes, I mean the mentality and the approach. Having trained as a competitive sprinter for four years, I learned to take every aspect of my life into account: sleep, rest days, nutrition and weaknesses. I learnt to listen to my body. Some days I would wake up feeling tired and fatigued, so on those days I wouldn’t train hard. I would do something less intense and focus on recovery.9. Remember: burning calories isn’t the be all and end all of fitness and good health. Yes, HIIT may burn more calories than any other form of exercise, but it’s no use if it leads to injury or illness. Overtraining is a real danger: it can ruin your immune system, cause insomnia, affect your appetite and release cortisol, which in turn can make you more likely to put on fat. ********What does the word “fad” in the title probably mean?
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【Craze.

2、 问题:What does the author mean by saying “I have a big bone to pick with HIIT” in Par.3?
A:He would like to give some suggestions for HIIT goers.
B:He recommends this popular and effective fitness training.
C:He is annoyed by it and wants to talk about it.
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【He is annoyed by it and wants to talk about it.

3、 问题:What does the word “smash” probably mean in Par. 5?
A:Break something into pieces.
B:Hit something violently.
C:Do something fast or in large amount.
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【Do something fast or in large amount.

4、 问题:What does the abbreviation “OTT” probably mean in Par. 6?
A:Beyond what is considered normal.
B:Toward the end.
C:Very popular.
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【Beyond what is considered normal.

5、 问题:What does the word “symptomatic” mean in Par. 7?
A:Being a simple version.
B:Being a sign.
C:Being systematic.
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【Being a sign.

6、 问题:What does the word “fatigue” mean in Par. 8?
D:(This is a filler. Do not choose this answer.)
答案: 【Exhausted.

Lesson 4 Identifying Author’s Purpose

1、 问题:Passage 1Most of us think (erroneously) that writers just sit down and churn out a wonderful essay, story or poem in one sitting in a flash of genius and inspiration. This is not true. Experienced writers use the writing process from start to finish to help them write a clear document. If you do not reflect on your composition in stages and make changes as you develop it, you will not see all the problems or error in it. Don’t try to write an essay or story just once and leave the room. That’s a mistake made by novice writers and will be glaringly obvious to an experienced reader. Stay and look through your work. Reflect upon what you’ve composed. Even better, use a writing process where you prewrite and plan, write a rough draft, organize ideas, edit and proofread. Your writing will suffer the consequences of poor craftsmanship otherwise. The author most likely wrote the paragraph in order to:
A:explain the writing process to someone who has rarely experienced it.
B:suggest that new writers use the writing process to craft their work.
C:identify the components of the writing process and the best way to incorporate into a composition.
D:compare the writing of a novice writer with that of an experienced one.
答案: 【suggest that new writers use the writing process to craft their work.

2、 问题:Passage 2On a highway, behind the gate of a vast garden, at the end of which could be discerned the white hues of a pretty manor house bathed in sunlight, was a beautiful, fresh child, clad in those country clothes that are so coquettish. Luxury, freedom from cares, the habitual sight of richest make such children so pretty that one is tempted to consider them molded of a different substance from the children of mediocrity and poverty.Beside him, lying on the grass, was a splendid toy, as fresh as its owner, varnished, gilded, clad in a crimson cloak and covered with plumes and glass beads. But the child was taking no notice of his favorite toy, and this is what he was looking at:On the other side of the gate, out on the roadway, among the nettles and thistles, was another child, dirty, sickly, soiled with soot, one of those pariah-kids in whom an impartial eye would discover beauty, as the eye of a connoisseur can divine an ideal painting underneath a layer of tarnish, if only the repugnant patina of poverty were washed away. — From “The Poor Child’s Toy” by Charles Baudelaire. The author most likely mentions the physical appearance of the impoverished child in the last paragraph in order to:
A:identify the cause of the child’s poverty.
B:intensify the reader’s sympathetic reaction toward the child.
C:criticize a social upbringing that would allow a child to suffer in such a way.
D:contrast the poverty of the second child with the privilege of the first.
答案: 【contrast the poverty of the second child with the privilege of the first.

3、 问题:Passage 3The high-tech world of clocks and schedules, computers and programs was supposed to free us from a life of toil and deprivation, yet with each passing day the human race becomes more enslaved, exploited, and victimized. Millions starve while a few live in splendor. The human race remains divided from itself and severed from the natural world that is its primordial community.We now orchestrate an artificial time world, zipping along the electronic circuits of silicon chips, a time world utterly alien from the time a fruit takes to ripen, or a tide takes to receded. We have sped ourselves out of the time world of nature and into a fabricated time world where experience can only be simulated but no longer savored. Our weekly routines and work lives are punctuated with artificial rhythms, the unholy union of perspective and power. And with each new electric dawn and dusk, we grow further apart from each other, more isolated and alone, more in control and less self-assured. — From “Time Wars” by Jeremy Rifkin The author’s first paragraph primarily serves to:
A:identify the primary methods humans use to organize their lives.
B:criticize technology because it causes humans to turn from the natural world.
C:illustrate the ways in which humans are exploited by technology.
D:describe how humans have split from the natural world and have embraced technology.
答案: 【criticize technology because it causes humans to turn from the natural world.

4、 问题:Passage 4When most people think of a shipwreck, they imagine the remains of a huge wooden or metal boat crashed along the bottom of the ocean. Fish swim in and out of the mangled boat’s hull, and coral and seaweed cling to its sides. Meanwhile, divers with scuba gear and cameras paddle their way into the depths to explore inside the long-forgotten vessel. They might find anything from old pottery to rusty cannons to pirate gold, but one thing is certain: the deep cold water has swallowed up the ship and kept it secret for a very long time.Surprisingly, though, water is not always a necessary element in shipwreck explorations. Few people realize that many important shipwrecks can be found on land. Trading skiffs, warships, and pirate galleons alike have been found buried deep in riverbeds, hilltops, and cornfields throughout the world. The author most likely composed these two paragraphs in order to:
A:inform the reader about surprising places shipwrecks have been found.
B:describe what a person would find if he or she visited a shipwreck.
C:compare the similarities between a water-found shipwreck and a land-found shipwreck.
D:intensify the discovery of a shipwreck by surprising the reader with a new location for finding them.
答案: 【inform the reader about surprising places shipwrecks have been found.

5、 问题:Passage 5Each time a person opens his or her mouth to eat, he or she makes a nutritional decision. These selections make a definitive difference in how an individual looks, feels, and performs at work or play.When a good assortment of food like fresh fruits, leafy vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins is selected and eaten, the consequences are likely to be desirable levels for health and energy to allow one to be as active as needed. Conversely, when choices consist of processed foods like packaged cookies, crackers, and sodas, items filled with sugars, hydrogenated fats, chemicals and preservatives – all of which can be harmful in large quantities – the consequences can be poor health or limited energy or both.Studies of American diets, particularly the diets of the very young, reveal unsatisfactory dietary habits as evidenced by the numbers of overweight and out-of-shape young children. Parents, who are supposed to be masters of their children’s dietary habits, often leave nutritional choices to their children, who are not informed enough to make healthy decisions. If anyone is to blame for the childhood obesity crisis in the United States today, it is the parents who allow their children to eat nutritionally bankrupt foods. The author most likely uses the phrase “filled with sugars, hydrogenated fats, chemicals and preservatives – all of which can be harmful in large quantities”in order to:
A:criticize the growing obesity crisis in the United States.
B:contrast poor choices in children in the United States with healthy choices.
C:identify the leading chemicals in processed foods so people know what to avoid.
D:intensify the negative reaction to processed foods.
答案: 【intensify the negative reaction to processed foods.

Lesson 4 Making Predictions

1、 问题:Here is the headline of a news article. Predict what the article might be about.Question: The news article might be about ____.
A:scientific research
B:a race between whales and sailboat
C:efforts at whale protection
D:dangers of boat racing
答案: 【efforts at whale protection

2、 问题:Look at the title, subtitle, source, picture and notes of the news article introduced in task 1. Predict again what the article might be about.Scientists aim to keep whales from the being biggest losers in sailboat racesNew guidelines could help prevent often-deadly collisions with boats Washington Post, July 10, 2017 Two humpback whales crest next to a sailboat off the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 2010. Collisions between racing sailboats and whales are often deadly for the animals, so scientists and racing groups are working together to reduce the chance of collisions. (Heidi Hansen/Whale and Dolphin Conservation via AP)Question: The news article might be about ____.
A:a race between whales and sailboat
B:efforts to avoid whale-sailboat collision
C:new rules to guarantee sailors’ security
D:a new sporting activity being created
答案: 【efforts to avoid whale-sailboat collision

Lesson 5 Making Inferences-1

1、 问题:Paragraph 1Valerie opened up the letter from the military department. She felt the pit of her stomach drop to the bottom of the earth before she even opened it. She knew it was news about John. As she read the first line, she thought of all the lunches she had packed him and all the nights she tucked him in his bed and warded off the nighttime monsters. The man carrying the flag put his hand on her shoulder. She thought of the day that John signed up for the military. Her tears wet the letter. She stopped reading after the first line. Question: What might the letter most likely say?
A:John joined the enemy forces.
B:John had been promoted.
C:John was on his way home.
D:John was killed in combat.
答案: 【John was killed in combat.

2、 问题:Question: What was most likely Valerie’s relationship to John?
A:She was his mail delivery person.
B:She was his sister.
C:She was his mother.
D:She was his wife.
答案: 【She was his mother.

3、 问题:Paragraph 2Every day after work Paul took his muddy boots off on the steps of the front porch. Alice would have a fit if the boots made it so far as the welcome mat. He then took off his dusty overalls and threw them into a plastic garbage bag; Alice left a new garbage bag tied to the porch railing for him every morning. On his way in the house, he dropped the garbage bag off at the washing machine and went straight up the stairs to the shower as he was instructed. He would eat dinner with her after he was “presentable,” as Alice had often said. Question: Where does Paul most like work?
A:In a cemetery.
B:In an office building.
C:In a grocery store.
D:At a bar.
答案: 【In a cemetery.



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